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Aspek-Aspek Pengubah Hukum

ASPEK-ASPEK PENGUBAH HUKUM

A. PENGERTIAN

Aspek pengubah hukum membicarakan berbagai hal atau keadaan  yang pada saatnya  berpengaruh dan oleh karena menjadi penyebab terjadinya perubahan terhadap hukum.

Sebelum berlanjut , perlu pula kita memahami terdahulu mengenai kandungan utama dari pada HUKUM itu.

B. HUKUM

Paling sedikit memuat norma yang :

  1. Merespon kondisi empirik
  2. Tidak bertentangan  dengan ideologi Negara
  3. Futuralistik
  4. Melindungi hak asasi manusia
  5. Mengandung amanat keadilan

C. PERUBAHAN YANG AKAN TERJADI

  1. Formulasi norma
  2. Makna normatif yang  berpatokan pada analisa:
    1. Historic
    2. Structural
    3. Ekstentif
    4. Restriktif
    5. Gramatikal
    6. Analogi
    7. Amandemen

di-judicial review sehingga tidak mempunyai kekuatan mengikat.

  1. Penambahan, pengurangan

D. ASPEK-ASPEK PENGUBAH

I. NASIONAL

  1. Sosial:
    1. Changing society
    2. Changing rules
    3. Perubahan kesadaran hukum
    4. Kepatuhan hukum
    5. Budaya hukum
    6. Serta akibat adanya  fenomena
    7. Liberalisme,
    8. Feodalisme
    9. Etnisitas
    10. Pertentangan peradaban
    11. Reformasi
    12. Revolusi

b. Ekonomi:

  1. Politik ekonomi
  2. Substansi ekonomi
  3. Struktur ekonomi nasional
  4. Budaya ekonomi berupa
  5. Tradisional
  6. Modernisasi/mekanisasi
  7. Pertanian
  8. Perubahan  permintaan dan suplai
  9. Perubahan indikator ekonomi
  10. Perubahan kebijakan moneter
  11. Politik:
    1. Konfigurasi politik di:
      1. Kalangan masyarakat
      2. Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat
    2. Ada/tidaknya  dukungan  parlemen terhadap pelaksanaan tugas pemerintahan
  12. Hukum
    1. Politik hukum
    2. Stuktur hukum
    3. Budaya hukum
    4. Penerapan prinsip  hukum
    5. Teori hukum
    6. Law of conflict of laws
    7. Choice of Law
    8. Pendapat hukum
    9. Amandemen
    10. Hukum Islam
    11. Hukum Adat
    12. Judicial Review
    13. Putusan Mahkamah Konstitusi

xiv. Putusan Mahkamah Agung

  1. Construction of Jurisprudence:
    1. Legal cases
    2. Legal facts
    3. Legal opinion
    4. Dissenting opinion
    5. Judgment dalam bentuk
    6. Declarative
    7. Constitutive
    8. Condemnative Melalui:
      1. rechtsvinding
      2. rechtsschepping

3. mengisi rechtskeuze

  1. Keadaan Genting dan Memaksa
    1. Dalam keadaan perang
    2. Bencana alam
    3. Force majore
    4. Kepentingan yang memaksa
    5. Keterbatasan tenggang waktu
    6. Krisis ekonomi
    7. krisis sosial dan politik.

II. INTERNASIONAL

a. Globalisasi yang ditunjukkan oleh  banyak hal:

  1. Kemajuan  Iptek di Bidang:
    1. Telekomunikasi
    2. Transportasi
    3. Transformasi Budaya
    4. Perdagangan Bebas
    5. Gelombang  tenaga kerja  dan persaingan usaha perdagangan internasional
    6. Fenomena Money Laundering  dan Terorisme seperti:
      1. peredaran uang palsu
      2. Transaki keuangan hasil kejahatan
      3. Financing of terroris
      4. Combating coruption
    7. Fenomena ini  yang melahirkan a.l.:
      1. UU Pemberantasan tindak pidana  Korupsi
      2. UU Perantasan tindak pidana pencucian uang
      3. UU Pemberantasan tindak pidana terorisme
    8. Underground banking system
    9. Fenomena trafficking of women and children
  2. Kesepakatan internasional
    1. Kesepakatan antara dua atau tiga Negara:
      1. Perjanjian extradisi,
      2. MOU on Transfer of Sentenced Person,
      3. Kesepakatan  pengamanan Selat Malaka antara Indonesia, Malaysia dan Singapura

4. Extradition Agreement and Defence Cooperation Agreement (DCA) antara Indonesia dan Singapore

  1. Kesepakatan Regional:
    1. ASEAN Treaty on Mutual Legal Assistent in Criminal Matters (MLACM),
    2. Asean Free Trade Area (AFTA),
    3. Asia Pasific Economic Coorporation (APEC),

4. North Atlantic Treaty Orgonization (NATO),

  1. Kesepakatan Multilateral/Global:
    1. United Nations Declaration  of Human Rights
    2. United Nations Convention on the Law of theSea (UNCLOS),
    3. United Nations Convention on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) ,
    4. United Nations Convention on Electronic Communication (UNCEC),
    5. General Agreement on  Tariff and Trade (GATT),
    6. World Trade Orgonization (WTO).

(Kesemuanya  itu  memerlukan ratifikasi sehingga pada akhirnya  kesepakatan internasional tersebut menjadi bagian dari hukum positif nasional dan pada saat yang  bersamaan merubah norma hukum yang sedang berjalan menjadi sebagaimana yang dimaksud oleh  kesepakatan internasional tersebut.)

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